Tag Archives: art

Sound is a hidden code when it unlocks allows us to perceive it as a set of geometrical patterns.Einstein believes the key to unlocking the universe is through the hidden geometry and mathematics, the mechanic of sound is translated visually through frequency and amplitude represents itself with beautiful geometries as code from the universe. My design recreates Sound’s geometries into a physical symbolic Sanctuary for users to retreat their senses in the desert,to unravel meaning behind the symbol of Sound by deconstructing it and re-dressing it with physical form. Making Sound visible.

Resonance cryptograph_Christine.jpg

The structure measures 13.77 feet in length &12.8 feet in height. The material for the structure would be paneled by birch plywood(4ft. x 2ft. panel).2-D dimensional geometry is translated into 3-Dimensional form by folding and joining edges.The sanctuary is made up of three mirroring layers, stacking vertically. The construction of the structure is to explore double curvature design with single curvature paneling and assembly. The ground storey encourages private space for reflection; individual sitting and resting area are carved inwards towards the air-well  ,in contrast, the upper storey is the communal area within the enclosure where users can access from a ladder. Pocket of windows are generated by the stacking and mirroring of sound vibration patterns.  Users enters into the enclosure and view the desert from within.

Resonance cryptograph-night.jpg

Live feeding of Sound and the changing LED lights


In the night, live feeding of sound is captured when in contact with the surfaces of the sanctuary. With a contact microphone attaches onto the surface, it captures the sound amplitude when a user touches or tap as sound travels through the surface as a medium. The device(computer coding with Arduino) then translates the amplitude variation (loudness) into changing colours of LED lights. The lights are attached on the rim of the panels.



Studies of Sound patterns through water




Eigen vector


Big Sheets-6

Project Summary

S(l)OSH (standing for ‘ slosh= to move through mud’) is a new Pop-Up Spa situated in Hackney Road, in East London. It is designed as an interactive relaxation area to be experienced through exploring and reflecting within a cavernous space, surrounded by mysterious voids, while soaking in a healing mud tub. S(l)OSH represents a new concept of fun mud house, that tells a different side of the wellness story.

The Spa aims to promote the cleaning and health rituals around the world and invite the users to become aware of the areas in need of healthy kickstarts. The new concept started from the idea that spas and relaxation areas are generally luxurious places to relax and heal and sometimes they are too expensive for the general citizen. S(l)OSH wants to bring healthy hedonism to the city while boosting urban areas that need a little support, while making the cleaning and health rituals accessible and fun to everyone.

Big Sheets-3Big Sheets-5


Bathhouses, spas and saunas have long been part of cleaning and health rituals around the world. Mud baths have existed for thousands of years, and can be found now in high-end spas in many countries of the world. Mud wraps are spa treatments where the skin is covered in mud for a shorter or longer period. The mud causes sweating, and proponents claim that mud baths can slim and tone the body, hydrate or firm the skin, or relax and soothe the muscles. It is alleged that some mud baths are able to relieve tired and aching joints, ease inflammation, or help to “flush out toxins” through sweating.2aOpportunity

The design is composed of layers of horizontal wooden planks that follow the mathematical formula of a Scherk’s Minimal Surface geometry of a continuous surface, placed in and around a shipping container. The Spa has been designed after several form manipulation and shape iterations of the initial system, followed by massing of standard bath tubs in a tight space. The proposal stands somewhere between the realms of both sculpture and architecture – a spatial construct where movement through will encourage intimate social interaction, and a full emerge into the relaxation experience.

Big Sheets-4

Physical Description

Visually, the main part of the Spa is composed of three main areas: the reception, the mud baths and the outdoor pools. The spas includes hot mud tubes, cold water plunges, a changing area, shower and relaxation platforms. The structure will be built from layers of horizontal CNC cut wooden planks stacked on top of each other and fixed together. Internally, the bathtubes will have a smooth concrete walls to hold the liquid and make the stay more pleasant for the sitting. Despite being designed to fit in one or two containers, the spa can expand even outdoors and other spaces.

Brief 3 - S(l)OSH SPA (FINAL)Brief 3 - S(l)OSH SPA (FINAL)2 Brief 3 - S(l)OSH SPA (FINAL)3 Brief 3 - S(l)OSH SPA (FINAL)4 Brief 3 - S(l)OSH SPA (FINAL)5 Brief 3 - S(l)OSH SPA (FINAL)6


Final Day Render


Entwine is a timber frame structure which has been developed through rigorous physical and digital testing to ensure a safe climbing frame for all to enjoy. When exploring Entwine, the vast expanse of the playa is framed through beautiful intertwining curved plywood beams. Burners can view the event from glorious vantage points nestled amidst multiple communal spaces that encourage interaction and play.

The structure predominantly consists of strips of curved plywood which have been connected together using pioneering construction techniques, specifically the utilisation of conflicting forces, similar to those apparent in ‘Tensegrital’ design. Drawing inspiration from Leonardo Da Vinci and his various experimentations with physical form, ‘Entwine’ is a marvel of geometry. The piece is formed from an arrangement of 19 octahedral components, each consisting of six beams, which are paired and positioned upon one of three axis. These three elements represent the unity of man, nature and the universe that surrounds us.

Close up Render.jpgFinal Close Up RenderFINAL Night Render

Each modular component is tessellated to form an octahedral space frame structure. The rigidity resulting from this tessellation is in direct contrast to the curving structural beams which exude an organic aesthetic. As Burners view Entwine from different aspects, a remarkable array of different patterns and forms are revealed, many bearing resemblance to sacred geometry, specifically the Flower of Life, which was a significant study within Leonardo Da Vinci’s work.


Entwine is unorthodox in its composition, and this is a contributing factor to what makes it so unique: Each module is constructed through tensioning layers of ¼ inch thick plywood, which are then mechanically fixed together when a desired radius has been reached. By laminating the plywood in this manner, each component retains its curvature but remains in compression. These conflicting forces are integral to the design of Entwine: Each octahedral module is constructed from these compressed plywood elements, and are held together with tensioning ropes creating a structure of isolated components in compression within a net of continuous tension.MODEL PHOTOGRAPHSMODEL PHOTOGRAPHS 2The form of the structure is based on the octahedron, which is a Platonic solid composed of eight equilateral triangles; four of which meet at each vertex. One of the eight triangles acts as a base for the structure. This results in one edge creating a small cantilever, whilst the counter edge can be anchored to the ground. As previously studied by Buckminster Fuller, the geometry of an octahedron is particularly good at forming space frames with a strong cantilevers.


Entwine Construction Proposal

The participatory aspect of the installation voids the role of the ‘spectator’ and creates more active engagement. In many of Leonardo Da Vinci’s paintings, his subjects are framed by surreal, dreamlike landscapes. This is reflected within Entwine: As Burners become part of the installation, they are framed by the awe inspiring backdrop of Black Rock Desert: In many ways Entwine becomes the artist, the playa the canvas, and Burners the subjects.

“the artist is not a special sort of person, but every person is a special sort of artist.”

This is not only true in the sense of physical involvement but during the construction the ‘spectator’ becomes involved in making strategic decisions in the realisation of the work of art. The development, design and construction of the project embodies the principles of self-reliance and self-expression, whilst a proposal that is safe, interactive and beautiful will be gifted to the community at Burning Man.

Entwine’s curving form will be illuminated using LED spot lights to enhance the organic patterning existent within the structure. This allows the full form of the structure to be fully visible.

My initial studies stemmed from researching into Stellation. This, in simple terms, is the process of extending  polygon in two dimensions, polyhedron in three dimensions, or, in general, a polytope in n dimensions, to form a new figure. Through researching the application of this process, I came across the sculptures created by George Hart, as he has experimented with stellated geometries to which are subdivided to create mathematical interweaving structures.Stellation 1

My Research into the method and calculations of George Hart’s Mathematical Sculpture’s focused on the sculpture ‘Frabjous’. Through rigorous testing and model making I have understood the rules behind the complex form. This is based on the form of a stellated icosahedron, whose shape is contained within a dodecahedron.grey card model

Lines are drawn from one point, to a point mirrored at one edge of the face of the dodecahedron form – as shown in the diagram. This creates intersecting lines at each face as you can see from the diagrams below. Each dividing line has two intersection points, with symmetry at the center of the line. The sculpture aims to avoid the intersections of these lines by introducing a sine curve with the domain 0 to 2*pi. As you can see, each component is exactly the same – for this model, 30 components are used.

george hart diagram 1george hart diagram 2george hart diagram 3

`To simplify the construction of the sculpture, I extracted a build-able section which uses ten components in total. Two of these sections are then weaved together and joined up by a further ten single components to form the entire sculpture.Diagram Sequence of Researched SculptureOne Component ImageryGeometry 2

Following this research, I extracted the concept of avoiding the intersection and subdivided a cube with lines from each corner of the cube. These lines were then weaved around eachother using a sine curve with a domain of 0 to pi. I then mirrored the curves and rotated them to create an intertwining form.Avoiding Self Intersection 2

Another test was created with the same process, however subdividing a cube using the midpoint of each face. – This creates an octahedral geometry.Avoiding Self Intersection octahedron

Using this interweaving geometry, I have created different three dimensional arrays to create a spatial form. The concept of avoiding intersections naturally cause a structure to fail. To form a structurally efficient version of this geometry, I introduced the idea of a reciprocal structure, and allowed the beams to self support by resting on eachother. This did not create a structure strong enough to stand on, however through adding a cube whose dimensions are equal to the width of the beams, the structure became very strong.

Avoiding Self Intersection octahedron 3

Testing the component at a small scale required the design of a joint which allowed me to assemble these components together through interlocking elements. Each beam element slots into the joint; When two joints and two beams are connected together the curves naturally stay in place due to the angle cut into the joint. Three of these connected elements together form the component.

Diagraming the Joint

As mentioned previously, avoiding intersections create inefficient structures – For this small scale experimentation, the concept of Tensegrity was implemented. Tensegrity is a structural principle based on using isolated compression components within a net of continuous tension, allowing the compression members to not need to touch each other. This model was constructed using 1.5mm plywood which has been laser cut; the modularity of the system ensures minimal material wastage.

Construction Sequence of ModelModel Photographs

The three dimensional array of this geometry creates many interesting shapes and patterns when viewed from different angles – this is visible in the following video:





Dutch Invertuals – ‘Cohesion’

Moiré patterns are superimposed secondary patterns created when two static surface patterns are overlaid one on top of the other. By displacing or rotating one or both patterns a new visual pattern becomes visible separate to the geometry of the first two. This moiré effect is created in the eye of the viewer, disparate from the shapes formed by the individual patterns themselves.


A moiré pattern generated by overlapping two identical patterns of concentric circles

Associated mathematical formulas can be used to determine the size and spacing of inferred moiré patterns from a series of regularly spaced overlaid patterns. The beauty of the moiré effect is the illusion of movement created through completely static overlays. This forms a naturally interactive experience for the participant, giving over control to the superimposed pattern through visual movement and rotation.

Physical Moiré experiments

The video above illustrates the moiré effect in two dimensions by overlaying static linear and concentric patterns, printed on acetate, and manipulating their motion and rotation in order to create a new visual pattern.


Concentric and Linear patterns, printed on acetate overlays

This effect is not restricted to two dimensional patterns but can also be applied in three dimensions. These spatial patterns then utilise the motion of the viewer in order to manipulate the moiré effect. The video below illustrates how three dimensional sculpted elements, set on separate spatial planes can form a visual pattern and take advantage of simple motions by the viewer.

Scale model of the facade for Brisbane Girls School Creative Learning Centre – M3 Architects

The two primary resultant effects from the physical experiment above illustrate the potential of moiré to create alternate visual patterns and to generate the illusion of movement. These were then applied digitally to create an animation that controls these aspects to create a recognisable representation of motion to the viewer, as opposed to an abstract pattern.

Digital testing of the moiré effect in animation

The above digital animation illustrates the rotational movement of a circle through the movement of a linear overlay, created with the two static images below:

Moire Overlay   The linear moiré overlay       Resultant Shape

The moiré underlay  creating the circular motion 

This moiré underlay is created through a series of rules defined by the size of the overlay and the direction, factor and type of movement (linear or rotational). The diagram below explores the rules associated with this specific type of moiré animation.

Brief 01_Moire System Analysis_Linear Animation-page-001

Rules for defining a moiré ‘underlay’ for linear animation

Whilst primarily a visual effect it is the ability to translate spatially which gives the moiré effect the potential to be applied in a design context, particularly given it’s interactive nature and the reliance on the involvement of participants in order to reveal it’s true beauty.

The video below takes this concept to the extreme, exploring the effects of imagining matter as nothing more than multi-dimensional moiré patterns……

Moiré – Julias Horsthuis

Updated Research:

Video illustrating various physical moiré experiments


Rules for defining moiré patterns in linear gratings


Mathematical rules for defining moiré patterns of rotation


Physical model for experimenting with moiré rotation patterns



Results from the physical model using sin curves & square gratings

Moiré patterns can be ‘programmed’ using a certain mathematical formula. If two variables are known; the base layer and the desired moiré pattern (in this instance a sin curve) the resultant reveal layer can be determined, allowing moiré patterns to be programmed to any shape.


Digital tests and physical proofs of programming moiré

Moiré patterns work in both ‘positive’ and ‘negative’ constructions. Positive moiré can be classed as additive, constructing patterns consisting of lines to create the effect. Negative moiré conversely removes elements of material (in this instance circles from card) to create patterns when held at a distance. The bottom row of images shows the most successful variables for discerning negative moiré patterns.


Negative moiré, set-up & physical experiment

The above experiment was digitally reproduced, modelling its negative space in order to understand how the variables of distance affect the reception of pattern.


Digital experiments with distance variables

In order to move from the plane into a spatial exploration of the moiré effect, sin curve gratings were mapped onto the faces of a cube, at varied rotations. The effect is a spatial understanding of moiré patterns when the various faces of the cube overlap. The moiré effect can be created by two distinct methods; a movement by the user, distorting the areas of overlap and the movement of the cube itself, visually shifting patterns.


Physical model exploring moiré patterns in three dimensions (Diploma Studio 10 at the University of Westminster led by Toby Burgess and Arthur Mamou-Mani)  is happy to announce more good news – Three of our students have just received art grants from the Burning Man Festival to build the pavilions they designed as part of our brief – Congratulations to the following winners:

All DS10 students will be offered a chance to build the projects this summer with the designers and we will be supported by RAMBOLL and Format Engineers.

Over the course of four years, DS10 has submitted a little more than 80 proposals to the Global Arts Grant of Burning Man and received a total of 6 grants including the ones for Fractal Cult Shipwreck (built in 2013) and Hayam (built in 2014). We are all very proud and excited to go back!

The Infinity Tree by Tobias Power

The Infinity Tree by Tobias Power

Reflection by Lorna Jackson

Reflection by Lorna Jackson

Bismuth Bivouac by Jon Leung

Bismuth Bivouac by Jon Leung

Watch our TEDx talk, The Architecture of Joy to understand the philosophy behind these projects
As the grant is limited, we need your help to pay for transportation and the additional costs related to construction, you can donate on the PayPal button below just indicate which project you want to donate to, kickstarter campaigns should follow shortly:


As part of international woman’s day I’m exploring differences between males and females in relation to the built environment in order to inform my final project. It only takes two minutes to complete and will directly influence the design progression.

Some examples of questions found in the survey can be found below:


material preferencetimber shapes proximity

Many Thanks

Image : Jan Gehl, How to Study Public Life,